P03 The Micro- and Nanofocus X-ray Scattering Beamline at PETRA III

P03
polymer solar cell

Science Highlight P03
Christoph J. Schaffer, Claudia M. Palumbiny, Martin A. Niedermeier, Christian Jendrzejewski, Gonzalo Santoro, Stephan V. Roth, Peter Müller-Buschbaum; "A Direct Evidence of Morphological Degradation on a Nanometer Scale in Polymer Solar Cells”; Adv. Mat., Vol. 25, Nr. 46, S. 6760-6764, 10 December 2013; DOI: 10.1002/adma.201302854

Petra III

P03 is the microfocus small- and wide-angle x-ray scattering beamline μSAXS/WAXS at PETRA III. This beamline exploits the excellent photon beam properties of the low emittance source PETRA III to provide micro- and nanofocused beams with ultra-high intensity and resolution in real and reciprocal space.

P03 is the microfocus small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering beamline μSAXS/WAXS at PETRA III. This beamline exploits the excellent photon beam properties of the low emittance source PETRA III to provide micro- and nanofocused beams with ultra-high intensity and resolution in real and reciprocal space.
The MiNaXS beamline exploits one of a high-β canted 2 m undulator pairs. The energy range of the beamline is 8 – 23 keV. In combination with Si(111) crystals, this demands a very high stability and precise positioning. To suppress higher harmonics, a planar double-mirror with low incidence angle compatible with the large energy range of the beamline is used.
Among the novel methods that exploit perfectly the most-brilliant beam, are μGISAXS [S.V. Roth et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88, 021910 (2006)] and μSAXS tomography [C. Schroer et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 (2006) 164102], as well as their expansion to nanosized beams.
Optics under consideration for nanofocusing include waveguides, Fresnel-zone plates, Beryllium compound refractive lenses and planar Silicon refractive lenses.
The beamline offers dedicated micro- and nano-focus endstations being both dedicated to transmission as well as grazing incidence experiments. The details of the two end stations are as follows:

  • The beam dimensions of the microfocus end station (hutch EH1) are 42 x 20 μm2 and 22 x 13 μm2, which corresponds perfectly with the design values. In 2012, an even smaller microfocus (projected beam size 10 x 5 μm2) was brought into operation.
  • Additionally, a 1:1 imaging layout for combining USAXS (Ultra Small-Angle X-ray Scattering) with a moderately microfocused beam is currently discussed.
  • A variety of sample environments is offered at the microfocus end station, ranging from imaging ellipsometry[3] to fluidics and sputter deposition.
  • The Nanofocus Endstation (hutch EH2), constructed within a BMBF-funded project by Kiel University (Prof. Martin Müller), is now operated by Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht in cooperation with Kiel University and DESY. The minimum beam size is currently 250 nm by 350 nm and a long focal distance optics is used to provide a clear working distance of up to 8 cm.
  • The experimental techniques at the Nanofocus Endstation have a strong focus on materials science and the long working distance is an excellent setting for extended in situ sample environments (such as high pressure, nanoindentation, tension, electric / magnetic fields).

For further documentation of the MiNaXS beamline, please refer to Beamline Manual (Login required, please contact the beamline staff)