The X-ray Multilayer Structure group at DESY is developing novel x-ray optics for intense, coherent x-ray sources such as state-of-the-art synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. One of our main activities is to explore and utilize new ways of controlling x-ray pulses generated by such sources. The combination of new x-ray sources with novel x-ray optics opens up new opportunities for breaking barriers in focusing, dispersing, and otherwise controlling X-ray pulses in space and time. They also offer exciting new opportunities and applications in imaging, spectroscopy, and nonlinear X-ray optics. However, the extreme intensity of FEL sources also pose unique requirements since damage or even complete destruction can easily occur. The development of these structures not only requires great understanding of the physics of interfaces, such as the effect of roughness and interdiffusion on interfaces and the growth of nano and sub nano-layered films, but also radiation stability and lifetime of these structures under extreme intensities.