P02 is the hard X-ray diffraction beamline at PETRA III. The beamline focuses on harvesting very brilliant X-ray beam of PETRA III to conduct diffraction experiments at relative high energies on both single crystal and powders and extreme conditions of high/low temperatures as well as high pressures and simultaneous high/low temperatures. The high brilliance in combination with fast area detectors enables furthermore time resolved diffraction experiments at the ms time scale.
PETRA III is one of the foremost 3rd generation synchrotron facilities in the world due to its low emittance storage ring that creates a very small and highly brilliant source even at high energies. Such a source is ideally suited for experiments at extreme conditions since they require hard X-rays with high brilliance and/or a small focus. Beamline P02 is designed to meet these needs by providing two experimental stations for hard X-ray diffraction. One station is dedicated to High Resolution Powder Diffraction (HRPD) at ambient pressure and high/low temperatures. The second station, the Extreme Conditions Beamline (ECB), is optimized for micro powder and single crystal diffraction at simultaneous high pressure and high/low temperatures in the Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) and the Paris Edinburgh Press. The ability to create extreme conditions is complemented on both beamlines by time resolved diffraction capabilities in order to explore the kinetics of physical processes such as metastabilities during a phase transition.
The above requirements have been realized at the two stations as follows:
EH 1: HRPD (P02.1)
- Offers a unfocused and collimated x-ray beam with size of ca. 0.6 (H) x 0.9 (V) mm2 FWHM at an energy of 60 keV (we are planning for additional focusing at the moment)
- Employs a Multi Analyzer Detector (MAD, still under commission) and a fast area detector from Perkin Elmer (XRD1621) to collect 1D and 2D diffraction images, respectively.
- Provides various sample environments to conduct diffraction experiments at high and low temperatures, i.e. Hot-Air-Blower, Cryostreamer, Lamp Furnace, Linkam Furnace, etc.
EH2: ECB (P02.2)
- Offers micro focus of 2 (H) x 2 (V) micron2 (Kirkpatrick Baez (KB) Mirrors) and 8 (H) x 3 (V) micron2 FWHM (Compound Reflective Lenses, CRL) at energies of 25.6, 42.7 (Be lenses) and a 16 x 16 micron2 focus at 60 keV (Al lenses only).
- Employs fast 2D area detectors from Perkin Elmer (XRD1621) and detectors from the detector pool such as the Mar345 (permanent loan), Pilatus 300 K and 1M as well the very fast Lamda detector boded to a GaAs chip to collect diffraction images.
- Provides various sample environments to generate high and low temperatures at high-pressures created in the DAC. They are divided into two experimental setups, the laser heating and the general purpose experiment, where the GP experiments accepts all sample environments other than laser heating, e.g. cryostats, resistive heating, four circle diffractometer, etc.